Western Europe in the Past
Who was crowned emperor on Christmas?
· His name stands for “Charles the Great”
· Ruled over France and large part of Western Europe
· Was emperor of Romans, however ruled over other kingdoms
Who made the term, the “Middle Ages?”
· Made by a historian
· Lived long after Charlemagne
· Needed a title for his book about the period of European history between Ancient and modern times
· The book was called, “The History of the Middle Ages”
Who were the rulers during the Middle Ages?
· Western Europe (again) broke into smaller states (with separate governments)
· Some ruled by kings
· Some ruled by local leaders
· Many rulers
· One important ruler was William, Duke of Normandy
How did William become a ruler?
· William was son of Duke of Normandy
· When seven, his father died
· William was almost killed, but escaped with uncle
· At 19, led royal followers and stopped rebellion
· Cousin, King Edward of England promised throne to him
· English leaders did not accept, and crowned noble named Harold
· William had war against them
When did William take control of England?
· Sept. 1066, William sailed to England
· Oct. 14, 1066, defeated and killed King Harold
· English crowned him king
· Was still Duke of Normandy
What was the service in return for land?
· Rewarded followers with lands from Harold’s followers
· Armed men had horse and fighting men were known as knights
· Land was given to followers by William called fief
· People received fiefs were vassals
· When vassal gave land to other, he became lord
What was feudalism?
· Feudalism: system of giving fiefs in return for the service of knights
· Divided power to govern among the number of lords
· System was not successful
· Many fights
· Castles were built for protection